Here is an explanation of the 26 fields or categories descriptive of each periodical and appearing on the `Search Results' page. That page displays only those fields for which data is available.Title
The main entry is always the earliest known title of a periodical, Even if prior to 1800. When a title is generic, such as Proceedings or Annual Report, then the title appears as the earliest name of the issuing body, such as University of London. When one title absorbs another, each of the absorbed titles also appears as a separate main entry, with the merge noted in both places.Sub-Issuing Body
In the event that the main entry is an issuing body, and that a sub-group such as a committee or department (for example the Biology Department of the University of Cambridge) is responsible for the publication, then this sub-group appears as a ‘sub-issuing body’.Later Title
All changes of title for each publication are listed, even prior to 1800 and after 1900. These titles also appear alphabetically in the Title Index so that a reader can locate a publication through any one of its associated titles or issuing bodies. Issue numbers and dates are provided for the title changes if available. Wrapper titles, which often are a shortened form of the title, are noted in the 'Comments' field (see below), and are cross-referenced in the Title Index. About one-fifth of the titles listed here, which is to say 5,182 of the 27,564 entries in the Title Index, are ’later titles'. Generally these are so different from the earlier title as to be completely new publications. Because the later titles are included in the Title Index, the reader who asks for a later title will be presented with the first or main title, and be directed to that record. This may be confusing, especially if the reader is not aware that the title requested is a later title, to be found in the middle of the record presented.Generic Title
Many publications are given generic titles, such as Minutes, Annual Report, Magazine or Newsletter. In these cases the publication is usually listed alphabetically under the name of the issuing body (for example, The Salvation Army). Often a date is provided for the changes in generic title.Sub-Title/Volume/Date
Publication dates are linked to the numbering. The terminal issue numbers and dates of each publication are provided under this 'Sub- Title' field, whether or not the periodical has a sub-title. When I have not been able to confirm the date of the first number, I have listed the earliest number for which a date can be confirmed. So the first recorded issue of a title may be several months or even years into its publication history, and indicated as: No 7; date: Feb 1834 Dates appear in the form: day/month/year: 01 Jul 1894. Where possible, changes of sub-title are date-identified. In some cases, date or 'run-information' appears under the Then title field as well, especially where there are several title changes. Often the first and sometimes even the second issue of a periodical is a prospectus, perhaps a single page. On occasion a publishing venture aborted after the prospectus, perhaps because expected support failed to materialise or funding proved inadequate. Sometimes the issue numbering may run concurrently with the volume numbering, as in the quarterly described as: Vol 1 No 1 - Vol 9 No 36, Mar 1851 - Jan 1860 or issue numbering may begin anew with each volume, as in: Vol l No 1 - Vol 43 No 7, Oct 1894 - Apr 1936 Publications may be numbered in series as well as in numbers and volumes. Various series numbering methods occur. So for instance, the second series may be labelled New Series (ns), or Series Two (s2); a third series may appear as New Series Two (ns2) or Series Three (s3). Where confusion may arise this Directory labels the second series as (2s) with a date, whatever appears on the title page of the periodical, and the third series as (3s), etc. A double slash indicates the publication is known to have Terminated at the last date recorded, as in: 29 Jul 1862//. When periodicals run into the twentieth century and their end date is unknown,it is indicated as 1900+. Readers often will find a year appearing in parenthesis after various elements descriptive of a publication, such as the editor, cost, frequency, and so on. Such dates indicate that the information provided is known to be valid for that date, but may have changed in other years, as: Editor: Walter Johnson (1837)Place
Place of publication is listed by both town and county, for the convenience of index searches by either. Large cities, such as London and Manchester, which are likely to have incorporated several smaller nineteenth century towns, are listed as both a town and a county. Sometimes several places of publication are listed, and occasionally several places at a single time, in the case of simultaneous publication in two or more cities. For some centres, a city suburb is given, such as `London (E.C.)'. However, the Place Index entry 'London (& all suburbs)' includes all listings sub-indicated by suburb, for a total of some 13,200 titles published there. When an English place of publication occurs for any issue in the life of a periodical, all other places of its issue are usually recorded. So European and North American cities as well as Irish, Scottish, Welsh, European, North American places may also appear in this field, and in the PLACE INDEX. Occasionally a newspaper is partially printed in Scotland but published in England. For example, the first two pages of Highland Sentinel are local news added to copies prepared for Scottish distribution, although the rest of the paper is published in London. These titles are listed as both Scottish and English. A very few titles with primarily English content but published abroad are included in this directory for the convenience of readers not aware of their origin. Places where a periodical was circulated are listed in Comments field (and occasionally in the sub-title) rather than in the Place field.Editor
One or more editors may be identified. Where possible a date is listed at which the editor is known to have held the post. This date does not indicate the entire span of editorship. All editors' names appear in the People Index.Proprietor, Publisher, Printer
These may be individuals or organizations. The distinction between them is often uncertain. All appear in the People Index.Contributors
This field lists people contributing in a variety of ways, perhaps as authors or reporters, perhaps as production staff. All the names appear in the People Index.Names
Most of the entries in this field are variations of names appearing in other fields, identified for purposes of clarity and computer sorting. Other names may be of people associated with the publication in ways which we have not been able to determine: perhaps as production staff, perhaps as part-owners, directors, or functionaries in an issuing body. All appear in the People Index.Size
The size is generally measured in centimetres from the top to the bottom of a page. The total number of pages and the number of pages of advertising, supplements or appendix are given where known. Sometimes the traditional sizing by folio, quarto, octavo, etc. is used when available. These are listed with their metrical equivalents in the Introduction Menu's list of abbreviations.Price
Usually the issue price appears in sterling, as shillings (s) and pence (d). Sometimes the price is marked as stamped or unstamped, and occasionally includes the subscription rate.Circulation
Circulation figures suggest the extent of readership, although these figures are seldom reliable. Readers ought to remember that editors may have inflated circulation figures for advertising purposes. Library or family copies might be read many times over. When the figures are given as annual stamp returns, then readers of this Directory must consider the frequency and period of publication. The place of circulation is given in the Comments field, and sometimes appears as part of the subtitle (in the case of newspapers).Frequency
For the purposes of this Directory a periodical is defined as any publication which at its inception was intended to appear at regular intervals for an indefinite period of time, at least once a year. So election publications, serial works such as multi-part novels, and government committee reports are generally excluded. Anomalies do occur: the editor has generally included titles which other authorities, such as the British Union Catalogue of Periodicals or the card catalogues of major libraries, accept as periodicals. These include titles which ceased or became irregular after one or two issues, as was often the case with annual directories, and a few titles which appeared every two years. Frequency of publication often changes several times over the life span of a periodical.Illustration
This field indicates whether the illustrations are black and white or colour, and sometimes whether woodcuts, engravings, lithographs, or photographs. Occasionally only the advertisements are illustrated. Maps and tables are also indicated here.Issuing Body
Both issuing bodies and sub-issuing bodies are provided, such as the University of London and the Department of Mathematics. Where the title of a publication is generic rather than distinctive, such as Report or Journal, the issuing body is listed as the main title.Indexing
Both internal indexes (per issue, volume or cumulation) and external indexes (such as The Wellesley Index of Victorian Periodicals) are identified.Departments
This field describes the various sections or columns of a journal. The information generally has been found in the publication's Table of Contents.Orientation
This field refers to the religious or political perspective of the publication, such as Conservative, Liberal, Radical, Masonic, Catholic, Evangelical. When changes occur (from Radical to Liberal, for instance), a date is generally provided. Occasionally a title will swing dramatically from one orientation to another. Where known, the dates of such swings are provided.Comments
Information here is often anecdotal, sometimes quoted from the publication itself or from secondary sources. Hints are provided for readers who wish to pursue the history of the publication further. Names of contributors, correspondents and illustrators are listed when available.Merge
This field lists other publications or issuing bodies which absorbed or were absorbed by the main entry. All titles in this field also appear in the TITLE INDEX for the convenience of the researcher looking for links between members of a family of publications.Sources
The directory lists other authorities, such as Mitchell's Newspaper Press Directory or the British Union Catalogue of Books, which help to confirm the existence or location of a periodical. One of the most common sources is an advertisement for one title, appearing in the pages of another.Histories
In this field appear publications which provide longer comments on a periodical or newspaper.Location
This Directory is not intended to be a union list. However, I hope by the end of the series to provide sufficient locations for the reader to find every issue of each title, as well as a selection of locations if numerous collections exist. In this first series the location data is very imperfect, to become completed only as all major UK libraries are visited. Other union lists which record locations for a title are also noted in the location field of that title. The term imp or imperfect indicates that a few issues have missing or damaged pages. The term partial indicates that some issues are missing. The term incomplete indicates that many are missing. These are the distinctions used by the British Library catalogues. A list of library codes, addresses and phone numbers, together with an index to libraries, is found in the Libraries section of the main menu. The library codes used are those established by the British Library; smaller libraries not listed in the British Library’s Directory of Library Codes code book have been assigned codes which are intended to be self-explanatory.TITLE PAGES IN FACSIMILE
The title pages for some 5000 publications are included in this Directory.
I am grateful to the University of London, to the British Library and especially to Mr. Geoffrey Smith, of the Colindale Newspaper Library branch of the British Library, for permission to reproduce these title pages.NOTICE TO READERS: DISCLAIMER
ALL of the records herein have incomplete information. Many of them have obviously faulty information. Some of these incompletions and errors have occurred in the handling of this vast amount of data. However, most of them are due to the editor's need to rely on a great many different sources using quite different standards and criteria themselves. Even this attempt to standardise the methods of description raises new kinds of error. Many of these will be corrected as an increasing number of titles are read at shelf-side over the next few years of this project.
The reader is reminded that to provide data in any field for a publication which may have run for months, years, or decades, is to risk misleading researchers. This is because only a minute amount of information is available for each title—whereas the reader is inclined to assume thoroughness, if only because of the massiveness of the project, even in its currently limited form.
The advantage of producing a series of publications such as this Waterloo Directory is that corrections are possible at every stage for every title. However, even when the editor reads a dozen issues of a decade-long weekly or monthly, the information to be found is limited and inconsistent with that of other issues. The fluidity of periodicals is such that most issues are bibliographically distinct from each other, and are in fact separate publications.
The patience of the reader is asked for these faults. The editor's experience is that his assumptions about what the data ought to be are often wrong, however compelling the logic. This continues to be so, after more than thirty years of work on periodicals bibliography.
Finally, I quote from Sir Frank Francis: "Information in hand, however imperfectly presented, is more important to the user than the promise of an ideally compiled work which may never be completed."