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Illustrated London News, The

vol 1 no 1, 14 May 1842 - 1900+



Joseph William Abbott
'Alphabet' Bailey (1842)
Patrick Thomas Duffy
Bruce Ingram (Sir) 1900 - 1952+)
Charles Ingram (director)
Herbert Ingram
William J. Ingram (Sir) director)
John Latey (1870)
Mark Lemon
Charles Mackay (1848)
Clement King Shorter (1890 - 1897)
Howard Staunton
John Timbs (sub-editor 1858)
R.B. Wormald


Nathaniel Cooke
Herbert Ingram (1842 - 1860)
William Ingram
William Little (1842)


Illustrated London News and Sketch Ltd (1899)
J. Clayton (1842)
Ingram and Cooke (Ingram & Cooke?, 1853)
George C. Leighton (1887)
William Little (1843)


Illustrated London News and Sketch Ltd (1899)
R. Palmer (1842)


Fred Barnard (1863)
J.M. Barrie
Harry Mortimer Batten
Frederick W.N. Bayley
A. Beckett
E.F. Benson
Walter Besant
Andrew Best (ill.)
John Cooke Bourne (ill.)
Edward Bradley (Rev.) pseudonym A.B. or Cuthbert Bede)
Frederica Bremer
Hablot Browne (ill.)
Randolph Caldecott (1861)
Eliza Sheridan Carey
Henry Carter (pseudo "Frank Leslie", lead ill.)
G.K. Chesterton
Henry Cockton
Wilkie Collins
George Combe
Joseph Conrad
Max Cowper (ill.1908)
Stirling Coyne
Marion Crawford
Catherine Crowe
Alfred Crowquill (ill.)
George Cruickshank (ill.)
Gustave Dore (ill. 1855)
Arthur Conan Doyle (Sir)
Pierce Egan (ill.)
P. Emerson (ill.)
Archibald Forbes
Alfred Henry Forrester
Birkett Foster (ill.)
John Gilbert (Sir) ill.)
Catherine Greenaway (Kate)
Maurice Greiffenhagen (ill.)
Rider Haggard (1892)
Thomas Hardy (Oct 1892)
John A. Heraud (dramatic critic 1849 - 1879)
William Harcourt Hooper (ill.)
Arthur Hopkins (ill.)
Arthur Boyd Houghton (ill. 1865 - 1866)
Jerome K. Jerome
Blanchard Jerrold (1855)
Douglas Jerrold
Charles Samuel Keene (ill. 1846 - 1858)
Ebenezer Landells (ill.)
Andrew Lang
John Leech (ill.)
George Leighton (ill., 1855)
William Pitt Lennox (Lord)
William James Linton (ill.)
Henry Augustus Mayhew
Horace Mayhew
William Measom (ill.)
George Meredith
John Everett Millais (Sir) ill. 1862)
Florence Fenwick Miller (1886 - 1918)
Edith Nesbit
Aloysius O'Kelly
Wal Paget (ill.)
James Payne
E.J. Poynter (ill. 1870)
Melton Prior (1868)
Samuel Read (art department manager 1853)
George Augustus Henry Sala
George Bernard Shaw (1891)
Frederick J. Shields (ill. 1859)
S.H. Sime (ill.)
Albert Richard Smith
Orrin Smith (ill.)
F. Smyth (ill.)
Robert Louis Stevenson
John Tenniel (ill. 1857)
William Makepeace Thackeray
George Thomas (ill. 1854)
William Thomas (ill.)
Henry Richard Vizetelly (1865)
W.W. (William Wordsworth?)
John Dawson Watson (ill. 1861)
Harrison William Weir (ill. c.1850)
Millais Weiss (ill.)
H.G. Wells
Andrew Wilson
Oscar Wilson (ill.1906)
Richard Caton Woodville (ill. 1892)
Henry Charles Seppings Wright
Edmund Hodgson Yates (1831 - 1894)


John Wykeham Archer
Charles Henry Bennett
Valentine Walter Bromley
Peter Cunningham
George Haydock Dodgson
John Greville Fennel
Kate Greenaway
George Hogarth
W.J. Linton (employee)
Grenville Murray
Richard Oastler


16pp + 32 woodcuts; 42cm, 16pp (1842); 36pp (1899)


6d (1842 - 1843; 1851; 1854-1855; 1899); 5d/vol (1860)


26,000 (no 1); 60,000/w (1842); 66,000 (1842); 212,500 (Oct 1843); 153,000 (Nov 1843); 230,353 (Dec 1843); 25,000 (1843); 132,000 (1848); 67,000 (1850); 132,000 - 200,000/wk (1851); 123,000 (1854 - 1855); 100,000 - 110,000 (1855); 200,000/w (1856); 17,000 - 100,000/wk (1861); 310,000 (1863); 70,000 (1870)


weekly (Sat 1842 - 1887)


woodcut illustrations (1875); 32 woodcuts; engravings (1842); sketches (colour, b/w), drawings, photographs (1899)


index/vol (1842); Law, Indexes to Fiction in the Illustrated London News (1842-1901) and the Graphic (1869-1901), 2001.; Periodicals Contents Index (1842+)


Imperial Parliament, foreign/law/sporting intelligence, central criminal court, police, the fashions, calendar for the week, anniversary meetings for the week, to correspondents, money market, the London gazette, London trade report, horticulture, every body's column, the court and haut ton [sic], the theatres, literature, fine arts, b/m/d (1842); advertisements, our note book, our illustrations, personal, fiction, chess, ladies' columns (1899); articles of general information, crime reports, illustrations, reviews, supplements, sports, epitome of news and fashion, music, intelligence: naval and military, shipping, country, law, fine arts, theatre reviews, shipwreck


liberal; neutral; Whig (1848)


absorbed The Illustrated Times; absorbed The Penny Illustrated Paper


Black, Jeremy. The English Press 1621-1861. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2001, pp.199-200.; DNB. i, 544-45; Mitchell.; PCI.; Bourne, H.R. Fox. English Newspapers. vol 2. New York: Russell & Russell, 1966.; Cadogan, Mary, and Patricia Craig. You're A Brick, Angela! A New Look at Girls' Fiction from 1839 to 1975. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1976.; Cooper, Dictionary of Contemporaries.; Ellegard, Alvar. "The Readership of the Periodical Press in Mid-Victorian Britain." Goteborg: Goteborgs Universitets Arsskrift. 63:3 (1957). Reprinted VPN. no 13 (Sep 1971): 3-22.; Grant, James. The Metropolitan Weekly and Provincial Press. Vol 3 of The History of the Newspaper Press. London: George Routledge and Sons, [1871].; Harden, Letters of Thackeray.; Headicar, B. M. and C. Fuller, directors. A London Bibliography of the Social Sciences. Vol IV. London: The London School of Economics & Political Science, 1932; James, Louis. Fiction for the Working Man, 1830-1850. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.; Lofts, W. O. G. The Men Behind Boys' Fiction. Howard Baker, London: The Anchor Press Ltd: 51.; Mitchell's Newspaper Press Directory 1866.; Mitchell, Chastity, Class and Women’s Reading.; New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., [1966].; Nash, “Elopement and the Nautical Novel”. p.43; Sutherland Longman Companion to Victorian Fiction.; Uffelman, 1992.; White's The English Literary Journal to 1900.; Williams, Judith Blow. A Guide to the Printed Materials for English Social and Economic History 1750-1850. 2 vols. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.; ii, 241, 1311; ix, 976-77; v, 316, 1070-71; vi, 1180-81; viii, 755-56; xi, 488-89; xiii, 192, 324-26, 1263-64; xvi, 792-93; xx, 417-18; xxii, 517, 857; xxiv, 358, 417-18, 629-30; xxvii, 326-27.; Wynne, Sensation Novel and the Victorian Family.; Beegan, Gerry. "The Up-to-Date Periodical: Subjectivity, technology and time in the late Victorian press." Time & Society. 10:1, 2001: pp.113-134.; Peterson, William S. The Kelmscott Press: A History of William Morris's Typographical Adventure. United States: University of California Press, 1991: 147.; Fulton, Richard. "The Sudan Sensation of 1898." VPR vol 42, 2009, p.37-63.; Henson et al. Culture and Science; Sumpter, Caroline. The Victorian Press and the Fairy Tale. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p.1-178; Liddle, Dallas. The Dynamics of Genre: Journalism and the Practice of Literature in Mid-Victorian Britain., University of Virginia Press, 2009, p.1-175; Lightman, Bernard. Victorian Popularizers of Science. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. p.203-207. Print. Harding, Timothy David. "Kings and Queens at Home: A Short History of the Chess Column in Nineteenth-Century English Periodicals". VPR 42:4(2009): pp.359-382.; Peterson, Linda H. Becoming a Woman of Letters. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, p.116; Denney, Colleen. Women, portraiture and the crisis of identity in Victorian England: My lady scandalous reconsidered. Great Britain, UK: ASHGATE, 2009. 162. Print; Sell’s Dictionary p.145


VPR:12:3, pp.127-128; 13:1/2, p.32; 13:4, p.130; 14:3, pp.102-03, 121, 124, 132; 14:4, p.130; 14:4, p.158; 15:3, p.88, 109-10; 16:3/4, p.107; 17:3, p.117.); 48:1, pp.87-120; [Editor's note: VPR vols 20 and later have numerous articles on this journal]; Altick, Richard D. "Nineteenth-Century English Periodicals." The Newberry Library Bulletin 9 [2s] (May 1952): 255-73.; Altick, Lively Youth of a British Institution.; Altick, English Common Reader.; Bacon, E. (ed). The Great Archaeologists. New York, 1976.; Barker, Hannah. Newspapers, Politics, and English Society, 1695-1855. Harlow: Longman, 2000.; Barnard, H. C. A History of English Education from 1760. 2nd ed. London: University of London Press, 1969.; Beegan, "Researching Technologies of Printing and Illustration".; Bourne, H. R. Fox, vol 2 (1887): 119-20, 294-98.; Bourne, H. R. Fox. English Newspapers. vol 2. New York: Russell & Russell, 1966.; Brock, W. H. "The Development of Commercial Science Journals in Victorian Britain." Development of Science Publishing in Europe. Ed. A. J. Meadows. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1980: 95-122.; Butterfield, Roger. "Pictures in the Papers". AH. 13 (June 1962): 32-55, 96-100.; Clemm, Mapping the World in Household Words.; Cooter, Cultural Meaning of Science.; Corrain, "Great Famine, 1845-9," p.73.; Cranfield, G. A., The Press and Society: From Caxton to Northcliffe. London and New York: Longman, 1978.; De Vries Leonard, (ed). Panorama 1842-1865: The World of The Early Victorians as Seen Through The Eyes of The 'Illustrated London News'. Intro. W.H. Smith. London: Murray. 1969.; De Vries, L. comp. in collaboration with I. Vanamstel. History as Hot News, 1865-1897: the Late Nineteenth Century World as Seen Through the Eyes of the 'Illustrated London News' and the 'Graphic'. Foreword by Elizabeth Longford. 1973.; Escott, T. H. S. Masters of English Journalism: a Study of Personal Forces. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1911.; Ferguson, Frank. "Irish Book Production, 1790-1900." Oxford History of the Irish Book. vol 4. 9-26.; Fisher, Judith L. "Magnificent or Mad? Nineteenth - Century Periodicals and the Paintings of Joseph Mallord William Turner." Victorian Periodicals. Ed. Richard D. Fulton. vol 29, no 3. Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1996. 242 - 260.; Frawley, Maria. "The Editor as Advocate: Emily Faithfull and The Victoria Magazine." VPR 31.1 (Spring 1998): 87-104.; Goddard, Nicholas. "The Development and Influence of Agricultural Periodicals and Newspapers, 1780-1880." The Agricultural History Review. 31 (1983): 116-31.; Goldman, Victorian Illustration and the High Victorians.; Griffiths, New Imperialism and the Fiction of Empire.; Grogg, Ann Hofstra. "The Illustrated London News, 1842-52." DAI. 38 (1977): 2139-2140A Indiana U.; Habicht, “Shakespeare Celebrations in Times of War”.; Harrison, Poor Men’s Guardians.; Haskins, Fine Art Publishing in Victorian England.; Hedley, "Fin de Siecle Consumer Culture".; Herd, March of Journalism.; Hewett, E. W. "Christman Spirits in Dickens." DSN. 7 (1976): 99-106.; Hibbert, Christopher. "Illustrated London News": Social History of Victorian Britain. London: Angus & Robertson, 1975.; Houfe, Simon. The Work of Charles Samuel Keene. Aldershot, England: Scolar Press, 1995.; King, "Education of the Gaze and The London Journal".; King, Carla. Defying the Law of the Land: Agrarian Radicals in Irish History. The History Press, 2013.; Kooistra, "Illustration".; Kooistra, The Illustrated Gift Book and Victorian Visual Culture.; James, Fiction for the Working Man.; Jones, Aled. Powers of the Press: Newspapers, Power and the Public in Nineteenth-Century England. England: Scolar Press, 1996.; Kaplan, J. H. "Musical Iconography in the Illustrated London News: an Introduction." FAM. 29 (1982): 161-9.; Knowles, O. and Misken, G. W. S. "Unpublished Conrad Letters: the H. Q. S. Wellington Collection." N&Q. 32 (1985): 370-6.; Koss, Rise and Fall of the Political Press.; Leary, Manchester Periodicals ms p.450.; Leckie, Barbara. Culture and Adultery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylavania Press, 1999.; Lee, Origins of Popular Press; Maidment, "Illustration" p.106.; Maunder, Andrew. "'Monitoring the Middle-classes': Intertextuality and Ideology in Trollope's Framley Parsonage and the Cornhill Magazine." VPR. 33:1 (2000): 44-64.; Mccoy, "Edmund Yates and the Voice of Society Journalism".; Maxwell, R. "Crowds and Creativity in The Old Curiosity Shop. JEGP 78 (1979): 49-71.; Meadows. A. J. "Access to the Results of Scientific Research: Developments in Victorian Britain." Development of Science Publishing in Europe. Ed. A. J. Meadows. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1980: 43-62.; Morgan, “Working Class Women”.; Muir, Percy. Victorian Illustrated Books. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1971.; New York: Dover, 1975.; Murphy, Ireland: a social, cultural and literary history, p.121.; Peterson, Linda H. "Mother-Daughter Productions: Mary Howitt and Anna Mary Howitt in Howitt's Journal, Household Words, and Other Mid-Victorian Publications." VPR 33.1 (Spring 1998): 31-54.; Ray, Martin. "Thomas Hardy's The Son's Veto: a Textual History." Review of English Studies. 47 (1996): 542-47.; Reid, 58 British Artists.; Richardson, Ruth and Robert Thorne. "Architecture." Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society. Ed. J. Don Vann and Rosemary T. VanArsdel. Toronto: U Toronto P, 1994: 45-61.; Robinson, D. E. "Fashions in Shaving and Trimming of the Beard: the Men of the Illustrated London News, 1842-1972." AJS. 81 (1976): 1133-41.; Rodrick, "Melodrama and Natural Science".; Rosenberg, E. "Wopsle's Consecration." DSN. 8 (1977): 6-11.; Schoch, Richard W. Shakespeare's Victorian Stage, Performing History in the Theatre of Charles Kean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.; Shattock, Joanne and Michael Wolff, eds. The Victorian Periodical Press: Soundings and Samplings. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.; Sinnema, Peter W. Dynamics of the Pictured Page: Representing the Nation in the Illustrated London News. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 1998.; Springhall, J. O. "Showbiz Imperialism: the Case of Peter Lobengual." Imperialism and Popular Culture. Ed. John M. Mackenzie. Manchester, 1986.; Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, c.1976.; Uffelman, p.34.; Waddleton, N. "Colour Printed Supplements of the Illustrated London News 1855-1896." PL. third series 1 (1978): 70-82.; Ward, J. T. The Factory Movement: 1830-1855. New York: MacMillan & Co Ltd., 1962.; Williams, Leslie, "Irish Identity and the Illustrated London News, 1846-1851: Famine to Depopulation." Representing Ireland: Gender, Class, Nationality. Ed. Susan Shaw Sailer. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1997: 59-93; Van Arsdel, Rosemary T. Florence Fenwick Miller: Victorian Feminist Journalist and Educator Ashgate: Burlington, 2001: xiv; King, Andrew and John Plunkett. Victorian Print Media: a Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; Codell, Julie. "Imperial Differences and Culture Clashes in Victorian Periodicals' Visuals: The Case of Punch." Victorian Periodicals Review 39.4 (2006): 410-28.; Daly, Nicholas. "The Many Lives of the Colleen Bawn: Pastoral Suspense." Journal of Victorian Culture 12.1 (2007); Zimmerman, Virginia. "'The Weird Message from the Past': Material Epistemologies of Past, Present, and Future in the Nineteenth Century." VPR 42:2 (Summer 2009):114-130; Moore, Tara. Victorian Christmas in Print. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009.; Sweet, Matthew. Inventing the Victorians. London: Faber and Faber, 2002'; Fyfe, Paul. "Illustrating the Accident." VPR. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 46:1, Spring 2013, pp.61-91.; Waters, "Doing the Graphic".; Wilkinson, Images of War in Edwardian Newspapers.; Williams, "British Reportage on the Irish Famine".


Although 26,000 copies of the first number were disposed of, there was a great falling off in the sale of the second and subsequent numbers. Herbert Ingram, however, was determined to make his property a success, and one that is still spoken of as a brilliant stroke of journalistic enterprise. He sent to every clergyman in the country a copy of the number containing illustrations of the installation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and by this means secured many new subscribers.
"Mr. George Combe" published here in 1879 (Cooter); "Take another fruitful branch of illustration [in addition to the political and diplomatic realms], the pleasures of the people! their theatres, their concerts, their galas, their races, and their fairs! Again, the pleasures of the aristocracy, their court festivals, their bals masques, their levees, their drawing-rooms the complexion of their grandeur, and the circumstance of all their pomp! In literature, a truly beautiful arena will be entered upon; for we shall not only, in most instances, have the opportunity of illustrating our own reviews, but of borrowing selections from the illustrations of the numerous works which the press is daily pouring forth, so elaborately embellished with woodcuts in the highest style of art...Here we make our bow, determined to pursue our great experiment with boldness; to associate its principle with a purity of tone that may secure and hold fast for our journal the fearless patronage of families; to seek in all things to uphold the great cause of public morality; to keep continually before the eye of the world a living and moving panorama of all its actions and influences; and to withhold from society no point that its literature can furnish or its art adorn, so long as the genius of that literature, and the spirit of that art, can be brought within the reach and compass of the Editors of the ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS" (Our Address, no 1, p.1).
In 1861, this periodical was selling between 17,000 and 100,000 copies per week. It sold 200,000 copies in the first week of the Great Exhibition (May 1 1851).
The first of the illustrated newspapers, The Illustrated London News made clear its purpose in the text of its second number: "We shall be less deeply political than earnestly domestic....Our business will not be with the strife of party, but with what attacks or ensures the home life of the empire; with the household gods of the English people, and, above all, of the English poor; with the comforts, the enjoyments, the affections, and the liberties, that form the link of that beautiful chain which should be fashioned at one end of the cottage, at the other of the palace, and be electric with the happiness that is carried into both."
"Three essential elements of discussion with us will be the poor laws, the factory laws, and the working of the mining system in those districts of our soil which nature has caverned with her treasures, and cruelty disfigures with its crime" (Bourne, H. R. Fox, pp.119-20).
A popular and innovative weekly, The Illustrated London News introduced the idea of a tabloid, a speedy presentation of the news and with the use of first rate illustrations (at first engravings) a more accurate representation of that News.
According to Mitchell, the paper's "artistes appear endowed with ubiquity, though perhaps their name is 'Legion.' It is admirably adapted for general perusal, and affords a very good summary of the news of the week" (Mitchell's, 1868).
The paper was one of three permitted to print its "own stamped postal wrappers" in 1870 because of the overwhelming number of publications sent to the Post Office for stamping (Williams, p.27).
The Graphic was a main rival of this magazine. Grant explains that, "of its pictorial excellence....[I]t is well known to all and appreciated by all. In politics it rather leans to Liberalism, but is never very decided in the expression of its political views" (Grant, James; pp.130-131).
"By the 1850's, news from France could reach London in a matter of minutes....The sense of immediacy in foreign news coverage which such improvements produced, coupled with a series dramatic events in Europe - not least the revolutions of 1848 - helped promote a growing public demand for sensation, news and outrage which publications such as the Illustrated London News...were aimed at satisfying" (Barker, Hannah; p.221).
Although the Illustrated London News was a liberal newspaper, its views followed logic and tried to balance perspectives, no matter harsh they were. For example, it demonstrated a seemingly unsympathetic view to Irish tenant evictions during the Famine, citing that the landowners could not uphold tenants who did not pay rent: "'it sounds very well to English ears to preach forbearance and generosity to the landowners. But it should be remembered that few of them have it in their power to be merciful or generous to their poorer tenantry...they are themselves engaged in a life and death struggle with their creditors'" (reproduced in Corrain 73).
It "exemplified the importance of visual mediums, and [its] success in dominating the illustrated news market was seen with sales that exceeded 60,000 copies an issue in the first year and 100,000 by 1852, and approached 200,000 in 1856...Its advertisement soliciting subscribers for 1855 emphasized the number of the illustrations - 1,000 engravings of the Crimean War alone in 1854..." (Black, Jeremy; pp.199-200).
The Illustrated London News "pioneered the use of wood engraving to depict the achievements of Victorian Britain" (Beegan 122).
"When the Illustrated London News commenced publishing in May 1842, it was both innovative and impressive. Published weekly, the Illustrated London News provided an extensive supply of visual news, ranging from panoramic pullouts to small vignettes" (Plunkett, p.13).
"One of the innovators in the incorporation of advertising was the Illustrated London News, the first successful illustrated weekly of the Victorian era. The ILN was launched in 1842 and was radical in its use of large-scale images, its use of color and positioning of advertising. Engraved advertisements were placed within the body of the magazine. In addition, advertisements which looked like editorial matter, what would now be called ‘advertorial’, were common. However, the ILN’s stated aim was to record progress and it promised a ‘complete record of all the events of the week, at home, abroad, or in the colonies.’ It was the epitome of respectability and suitable for consumption and display in middle-class homes. The ILN enriched accounts of wars, official ceremonies, accidents and disasters with images of these events." (Beegan, p.119)
Hedley: "The Illustrated London News and the Graphic enjoyed the widest circulation of all the late Victorian pictorial news weeklies. Both papers were early adaptors of mass print innovations and thus dominated the market for illustrated weeklies well into the twentieth century despite a growing number of competitors" (139-140).
Griffiths suggests that the Illustrated London News was often ahead of the government when interpreting public opinion (78).
"In 1891 Clement Shorter, a comparatively young journalist at 34, was offered the editorship of the ILN. He had no editorial experience and little journalistic experience. He describes himself as ‘a fanatic champion of process and photography.'… Shorter himself described the appointment as ‘eccentric’ and thought his youth had much to do with it. Most of the editors of illustrated magazines had been trained in the days of wood engraving. As an outsider Shorter was not hindered by tradition…he was not a member of any clubs, and had never smoked or tasted alcohol….His own interests formed the basis for the content of his magazines, and this is particularly true of The Sketch" (Beegan, p.121).
The Christmas 1855 issue of the Illustrated London News contained the first color pictures printed in an English newspaper. These were printed on wood blocks using a process developed by George Leighton.
Arthur Hopkins, brother of the poet Gerard Manly Hopkins, earned his living as an illustrator for the ILN.
When Staunton took over at the Illustrated London News, he established what could be called the template or standard format for a chess column, which Bell's Life in London copied in October (Harding, p. 367).
The paper had a large world-wide circulation; it was read by far more people and in far more countries than any other(Harding, p.370).
"In 1861, the Illustrated London News observed the prevalence of the '"sensation" paragraphs' of modern crime reporting" (Sweet, p.5).
The Illustrated London News captured the horror of the Great Famine in Ireland. King notes that English readers, particularly liberal MPs, were shocked by the images outlining "roofless hovels, deserted villages, and ragged and emaciated peasants" and they were "appalled by all the reports of mass evictions, house-razings, disease, and starvation." Following these images, landlords were condemned and generalized as evictors, regardless of whether a landlord was benevolent or cruel. Hedley explains that "through hybridity and continuous ephemerality, the Illustrated London News and the Graphic encouraged readers to imagine mass print culture as an infinite proliferation of diverse goods to be purchased and momentarily consumed" (151).


partial runs: QZ/P-1 vols 1+ (14 May 1842+), LO/N38 A; PCI; N.America: Fulton and ULS 2&3; ICN (see Altick); MA/S-2 (1842, 1851-1870, 1873-1878, 1880, 1910 [4vols], 1911-1912, 1913 [2vols], 1925)

Reproduced by permission, Dana Porter Library

Reproduced by permission, Dana Porter Library

Reproduced by permission, Dana Porter Library

Reproduced by permission, Dana Porter Library

Reproduced by permission, Pearse Street Public Library

Reproduced by permission, Pearse Street Public Library
The Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers & Periodicals: 1800 - 1900 Series Three.
Copyright © 2009 North Waterloo Accademic Press